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Reprinted - Knowledge of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Prevention and Control

XNUMX. What is the current epidemic situation?
Recently, a new type of coronavirus-infected pneumonia has occurred in Wuhan City, Hubei Province and other regions.As of 1:20 on January 18, a total of 224 cases of pneumonia with new coronavirus infection were reported in China, including 217 confirmed cases (198 in Wuhan, 5 in Beijing, and 14 in Guangdong); 7 suspected cases (Sichuan Province). 2 cases, 1 case in Yunnan Province, 2 cases in Shanghai, 1 case in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and 1 case in Shandong Province).Japan reported one confirmed case, Thailand reported two confirmed cases, and South Korea reported one confirmed case.
XNUMX. What is the new coronavirus?
Coronavirus is a family of large viruses, so named because the shape of the virus resembles a crown when viewed under an electron microscope.So far, it has been found that coronaviruses only infect vertebrates and can cause respiratory, digestive and nervous system diseases in humans and animals, such as colds and more serious diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).The novel coronavirus is a new strain of coronavirus that has never been found in humans before.In addition to the new coronavirus discovered this time, there are 6 other coronaviruses known to infect humans.Four of them are more common in the population, have low pathogenicity, and generally only cause mild respiratory symptoms similar to the common cold; the other two are the well-known SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus.The new coronavirus that caused the Wuhan pneumonia outbreak this time is very different from the past.Like humans, although different viruses are close relatives, their temperaments and attitudes are very different. Although the new coronavirus is a close relative of SARS, it has not yet shown the terrible characteristics of SARS. Therefore, there is no need to panic too much. Prevention work.
XNUMX. What are the source of infection, transmission route, and susceptible population of coronavirus?
Source of infection: The main source of infection is animals.For example, SARS-CoV was transmitted to humans from civet cats in China in 2002, while MERSCoV was transmitted from dromedary camels to Saudi Arabians in 2012.but
Some coronaviruses can also spread from person to person, usually after close contact with an infected patient, such as in a home workplace or medical center.The 2019-nCoV in Wuhan, China has been confirmed to have limited human-to-human transmission.Routes of transmission: droplets, contact, air.Susceptible population: The population is generally susceptible.The current case data show that the outbreak is mainly in adults.
XNUMX. Will the new coronavirus be as ferocious as SARS?
At present, it has been confirmed that there is limited human-to-human transmission, but according to the research and judgment of the pneumonia epidemic situation of the new coronavirus infection, the new coronavirus is far milder than the SARS coronavirus.Academician Zhong Nanshan, head of the high-level expert group of the National Health and Medical Commission, pointed out that we must be more vigilant now, and the people, leaders, government, medical personnel, including the media, and local leaders should take responsibility. We are confident that we can control the new coronavirus.Zhong Nanshan said that it took two weeks to locate the new coronavirus this time, and we have a good monitoring and isolation system. I believe that the epidemic will not be like the social impact and economic damage caused by SARS 17 years ago.
XNUMX. What are the clinical features of this outbreak?
Clinical manifestations: Fever, fatigue and dry cough are the main manifestations.Upper respiratory symptoms such as nasal congestion and runny nose are rare.About half of the patients developed dyspnea more than a week later, and severe cases rapidly progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis that was difficult to correct, and coagulation dysfunction.It is worth noting that severe and critically ill patients may have moderate to low fever or even no obvious fever during the course of the disease.
XNUMX. How to make a differential diagnosis?
Some patients have mild onset symptoms and may have no fever, and most of them recover after 1 week.Most patients have a good prognosis, and a few patients are critically ill and even die.Laboratory tests: the total number of peripheral blood leukocytes was normal or decreased in the early stage of the disease, and the lymphocyte count decreased.Liver enzymes, muscle enzymes, and myoglobin were elevated in some patients.Most patients had elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and normal procalcitonin.In severe cases, D-dimer increased and peripheral blood lymphocytes decreased progressively.Chest imaging: In the early stage, there were multiple small patchy shadows and interstitial changes, especially in the extrapulmonary zone.It then develops into multiple ground-glass opacities and infiltration shadows in both lungs. In severe cases, pulmonary consolidation may occur, and pleural effusion is rare.Treatment: At present, there is no specific treatment and no vaccine to prevent the disease caused by the new coronavirus.Mainly symptomatic and supportive treatment.
XNUMX. What is a close contact?
It is mainly differentiated from other known viral pneumonias such as influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, etc., and from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia.In addition, it should be differentiated from non-infectious diseases such as vasculitis, dermatomyositis, and organizing pneumonia.
XNUMX. What should I do if I receive a notification from the relevant department that you are a close contact?
Those who have been in contact with a case (suspected and confirmed case) after the onset of one of the following situations: 1.People who live, study, work or have other close contacts with the case. 2.Medical staff, family members or other personnel who have similar close contact with the case who did not take effective protective measures when diagnosing, nursing, or visiting the case. 3.Other patients in the same ward and their accompanying staff. 4.Travelling on the same vehicle as the case and having close contact with people. 5.Persons deemed to be eligible after an investigation by on-site investigators.
Do home medical observation as required, don’t panic, don’t go to work, don’t go out casually, observe your own physical condition, and receive regular follow-up from relevant departments. If you have abnormal clinical manifestations such as fever and cough, report to the local disease prevention and control agency in time. Under their guidance, they go to designated medical institutions for investigation, diagnosis and treatment.
XNUMX. How can individuals effectively prevent new coronavirus infection?
1.Strengthen personal protection (1) Avoid going to crowded public places.Avoid contact with patients with fever and respiratory tract infection, and wear a surgical mask if necessary.
(2) Wash hands frequently, especially when hands are contaminated with respiratory secretions, after touching public facilities, after caring for a patient with a fever, respiratory infection or vomiting and diarrhea, after visiting a hospital, handling contaminated items, and after touching animals, animal feed or animal feces .
(3) Do not spit anywhere.Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or sleeve when you sneeze or cough.
( ) Strengthening exercise, regular work and rest, 4 to maintain indoor air circulation.
2.Avoid contact with wild livestock (1) Avoid contact with livestock, wild animals and their excrement and secretions, and avoid buying live poultry and wild animals. (2) Avoid going to animal farms and slaughterhouses, live poultry and animal trading markets or stalls, wildlife habitats or other places.Take precautions when you must go, especially for occupationally exposed people. (3) Avoid eating wild animals.Do not eat sick animals and their products; buy chilled poultry meat from regular channels, fully cook poultry meat, eggs and milk, and when handling fresh products, separate raw and cooked utensils and clean them in time to avoid cross-contamination .
3.Eliminate symptoms of respiratory infection such as fever and cough at work or gatherings while sick, rest at home, reduce going out and travel, and ventilate the room when the weather is good. Wear a mask when in close contact with others.Avoid going to work, classes and gatherings while sick. 4. Seek medical treatment in time. If you return from a trip in Wuhan or other places, if you have symptoms of respiratory infection such as fever, cough, etc., you should choose a fever clinic of the nearest hospital for medical treatment according to your condition, wear a surgical mask, and inform the doctor of your contact history with similar patients or animals, travel history History et al.
XNUMX. How to protect medical staff at work?
Medical staff should follow standard precautionary principles and take into account the risks of possible transmission from medical operations, and do a good job of personal protection, hand hygiene, ward management, environmental ventilation, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces, and medical waste management. Infection occurs.
Adhere to the principle of prevention and treatment: prevention first, combination of prevention and treatment, scientific guidance, and timely treatment.Grasp the key to prevention and treatment: early detection, early reporting, early diagnosis, early isolation, and early treatment.Build confidence in prevention and control: The pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus can be prevented, controlled and cured.
Knowledge Manual on Prevention and Control of Pneumonia Infected by Novel Coronavirus
Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital January 2020
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