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Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors

The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors "The Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors" is to protect the physical and mental health of minors, protect the legitimate rights and interests of minors, promote the all-round development of minors in morality, intelligence, physique, beauty and labor, and cultivate ideal, Socialist builders and successors with morality, culture, and discipline, cultivate newcomers to the era who are responsible for national rejuvenation, and formulate laws in accordance with the constitution. On October 2020, 10, the 17nd meeting of the Standing Committee of the 2021th National People's Congress revised the "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors" for the second time, which will come into force on June 6, 1[1] .The revised Minor Protection Law is divided into general provisions, family protection, school protection, social protection, network protection, government protection, judicial protection, legal responsibility and supplementary provisions, with a total of nine chapters and 132 articles [2].
Chinese name: Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors
Promulgation Date: September 1991, 9
Implementation time: June 2021, 6
Adopted the XNUMXst meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
Level of validity: Legal

revise history

Adopted at the 1991st meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People's Congress on September 9, 4

The first revision of the 2006th meeting of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress on December 12, 29

Amended according to the "Decision on Amending the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Minors" at the 2012th Session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on October 10, 26

Second revision of the 2020nd meeting of the Standing Committee of the 10th National People's Congress on October 17, XNUMX

Chapter XNUMX General

Article XNUMX In order to protect the physical and mental health of minors, protect the legitimate rights and interests of minors, promote the all-round development of minors in morality, intelligence, physique, beauty and labor, and cultivate socialist builders and successors with ideals, morality, culture and discipline , cultivating newcomers of the era who will take on the great responsibility of national rejuvenation, and enacting this law in accordance with the Constitution.

Article XNUMX The term "minors" as used in this Law refers to citizens under the age of eighteen.

Article XNUMX The state guarantees minors' rights to survival, development, protection, participation and other rights.Minors enjoy equal rights in accordance with the law and are not discriminated against because of their nationality, race, gender, household registration, occupation, religious belief, education level, family status, physical and mental health status, etc. of themselves and their parents or other guardians.

Article XNUMX The protection of minors shall adhere to the principle that is most beneficial to minors.When handling matters involving minors, the following requirements shall be met: (XNUMX) Special and priority protection for minors; (XNUMX) Respect for minors' personal dignity; (XNUMX) Protection of minors' privacy rights and personal information; (XNUMX) Adapt to the laws and characteristics of the physical and mental health of minors; (XNUMX) listen to the opinions of minors; (XNUMX) combine protection with education.

Article XNUMX The state, society, schools and families shall provide ideal education, moral education, scientific education, cultural education, legal education, national security education, health education, labor education to minors, and strengthen patriotism, collectivism and Chinese characteristics. Socialist education cultivates the public morals of loving the motherland, the people, labor, science, and socialism, resisting the erosion of capitalism, feudalism and other corrupt ideas, and guiding minors to establish and practice the core socialist values.

Article XNUMX The protection of minors is the joint responsibility of state organs, armed forces, political parties, people's organizations, enterprises and institutions, social organizations, urban and rural grassroots mass autonomous organizations, guardians of minors, and other adults.The state, society, schools and families should educate and help minors to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests, and enhance their awareness and ability to protect themselves.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall undertake guardianship duties for minors in accordance with the law.The state takes measures to guide, support, help and supervise the parents or other guardians of minors in performing their guardianship duties.

Article XNUMX The people's government at or above the county level shall incorporate the protection of minors into the national economic and social development plan, and the relevant funds shall be included in the government budget at the same level.

Article XNUMX The people's government at or above the county level shall establish a coordination mechanism for the protection of minors, and plan, coordinate, supervise and guide relevant departments to do a good job in the protection of minors within the scope of their respective duties.The specific work of the coordination mechanism shall be undertaken by the civil affairs department of the people's government at or above the county level, and the provincial people's government may also determine that it shall be undertaken by other relevant departments according to local actual conditions.

Article XNUMX The Communist Youth League, women's federations, trade unions, disabled persons' federations, working committees for caring for the next generation, youth federations, student federations, juvenile pioneers, and other people's organizations and relevant social organizations shall assist people at all levels. The government and its relevant departments, the people's procuratorates, and the people's courts do a good job in protecting minors and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of minors.

Article XNUMX Any organization or individual who finds a situation that is detrimental to the physical and mental health of minors or infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of minors has the right to dissuade, stop, or file reports or accusations to relevant departments such as public security, civil affairs, and education.If state organs, residents' committees, villagers' committees, units that have close contact with minors, and their staff members discover that minors' physical and mental health has been infringed, suspected of being infringed, or are facing other dangers, they shall immediately report to the public security, civil affairs, Education and other relevant departments report.Relevant departments shall accept and dispose of reports, accusations or reports involving minors in a timely manner in accordance with the law, and inform relevant units and personnel of the results of the handling in an appropriate manner.

Article XNUMX The state encourages and supports scientific research on the protection of minors, establishes relevant disciplines, sets up relevant majors, and strengthens personnel training.

Article XNUMX The state establishes and improves the statistical investigation system for minors, conducts statistics, investigations, and analyses of minors' health and education, and publishes relevant information on the protection of minors.

Article XNUMX The state commends and rewards organizations and individuals that have made outstanding achievements in protecting minors.

Chapter II Family Protection

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall learn family education knowledge, accept family education guidance, and create a good, harmonious and civilized family environment.Other adult family members living together shall assist the minor's parents or other guardians in raising, educating and protecting the minor.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall perform the following guardianship duties: (XNUMX) Provide protection for the minors in terms of life, health and safety; (XNUMX) Pay attention to the minors' physical, psychological conditions and emotions (XNUMX) To educate and guide minors to abide by the law, be diligent and thrifty, and develop good ideological morality and behavioral habits; (XNUMX) To conduct safety education for minors to improve their self-protection awareness and ability; (XNUMX) Respect the rights of minors to receive education, and ensure that minors of school age receive and complete compulsory education in accordance with the law; (XNUMX) Guarantee the time for rest, entertainment and physical exercise for minors, and guide minors to engage in activities that are beneficial to their physical and mental health (XNUMX) Properly manage and protect the property of minors; (XNUMX) Act on behalf of minors to carry out civil legal acts; (XNUMX) Prevent and stop minors' bad behavior and illegal and criminal acts, and conduct reasonable discipline; ( XNUMX) Other guardianship duties that should be performed.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall not commit the following acts: (XNUMX) Abusing, abandoning, illegally sending minors for adoption or committing domestic violence to minors; (XNUMX) Allowing, instigating or taking advantage of minors Committing illegal and criminal acts; (XNUMX) Allowing or instigating minors to participate in cult, superstitious activities, or accepting terrorism, separatism, extremism, etc.; (XNUMX) Allowing or instigating minors to smoke (including electronic cigarettes, the same below) , drinking, gambling, wandering and begging, or bullying others; (XNUMX) Allowing or forcing minors who should receive compulsory education to drop out of school or dropping out of school; (XNUMX) Allowing minors to indulge in the Internet, access to books, books, books that may affect their physical and mental health. Newspapers, films, radio and television programs, audio-visual products, electronic publications and online information, etc.; (XNUMX) Allow minors to enter commercial entertainment venues, bars, Internet access service business venues and other places that are not suitable for minors' activities; ( XNUMX) Allowing or forcing minors to engage in labor other than those stipulated by the state; (XNUMX) Allowing or forcing minors to marry or entering into marriage contracts for minors; (XNUMX) Unlawfully punishing or embezzling the property of minors or taking advantage of minors Seeking illegitimate interests; (XNUMX) Other acts that violate the physical and mental health, property rights and interests of minors, or fail to perform their obligations to protect minors in accordance with the law.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall provide minors with a safe family living environment, and promptly eliminate potential safety hazards that may cause electric shock, burns, falls, etc.; Traffic rules and other measures to prevent minors from being injured by traffic accidents; improve outdoor safety protection awareness to prevent minors from drowning, animal injury and other accidents.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall, according to the age and intellectual development of the minor, listen to the opinions of the minor and fully consider their true wishes before making a decision related to the rights and interests of the minor.

Article XNUMX If the parents or other guardians of minors discover that the minor's physical and mental health has been infringed, suspected of being infringed, or other legitimate rights and interests are infringed, they shall promptly understand the situation and take protective measures; if the situation is serious, they shall immediately report to the public security, Civil affairs, education and other departments report.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall not leave minors who are under the age of eight or who need special care due to physical or psychological reasons in an unsupervised state, or hand them over to persons who have no capacity for civil conduct or who have limited civil capacity. Temporary care of persons with capacity, severe communicable diseases, or other unsuitable persons.Parents or other guardians of minors shall not allow minors under the age of sixteen to live alone without guardianship.

Article XNUMX If the parents or other guardians of minors are unable to fully perform their guardianship duties within a certain period of time due to other reasons such as going out to work, they shall entrust a person with full capacity for civil conduct to take care of them; care for others.The parents or other guardians of minors should comprehensively consider their moral character, family status, physical and mental health, emotional connection with the minor's life, etc. Views.Anyone who has one of the following circumstances shall not be a client: (XNUMX) He has committed sexual assault, abuse, abandonment, abduction, trafficking, violence and other illegal and criminal acts; (XNUMX) He has bad habits such as drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and gambling; (XNUMX) He has Refusing to perform or neglecting to perform the duties of guardianship and care for a long time; (XNUMX) Other circumstances that are not suitable for serving as the entrusted person.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall promptly inform the minor's school, kindergarten and the residents' committee and village committee of the place of actual residence of the entrusted care in writing, and strengthen communication with the minor's school and kindergarten. ; Contact and communicate with minors and entrusted persons at least once a week to learn about minors' life, study, psychology, etc., and to give minors family affection.The parents or other guardians of minors shall take timely intervention measures after receiving notices from the entrusted persons, residents' committees, villagers' committees, schools, kindergartens, etc. about the minor's abnormal psychology and behavior.

Article XNUMX When parents of minors divorce, they shall properly handle matters such as the upbringing, education, visitation, property, etc. of minor children, and listen to the opinions of minors who have the ability to express their wishes.It is not allowed to compete for custody rights by means of snatching or hiding minor children.After the minor's parents divorce, the party who does not directly support the minor child shall visit the minor child and directly support the minor child in accordance with the time and method determined by the agreement, the people's court judgment or mediation without affecting the minor's study and life. The party concerned shall cooperate, unless the visitation rights are suspended by the people's court in accordance with the law.

Chapter XNUMX School Protection

Article XNUMX Schools shall fully implement the national education policy, adhere to moral cultivation, implement quality education, improve the quality of education, focus on cultivating minor students' cognitive ability, cooperation ability, innovation ability and practical ability, and promote the comprehensive development of minor students. developing.Schools should establish a work system for the protection of minor students, improve student behavioral norms, and cultivate minor students' good behavioral habits of abiding by the law.

Article XNUMX Kindergartens shall do a good job in childcare and education, follow the laws of physical and mental development of children, implement enlightenment education, and promote the harmonious development of children in terms of physique, intelligence, and morality.

Article XNUMX The teaching staff of schools and kindergartens shall respect the personal dignity of minors, and shall not impose corporal punishment, disguised corporal punishment or other acts that insult the personal dignity of minors.

Article XNUMX Schools shall protect the rights of underage students to receive education, and shall not expel minor students in violation of state regulations or in disguised form.Schools should register underage students who have dropped out of school who have not completed compulsory education and persuade them to return to school; if the persuasion to return is invalid, they should report in writing to the education administrative department in a timely manner.

Article XNUMX Schools shall care for and cherish minor students, and shall not discriminate against students due to family, physical, psychological, learning ability, etc.For students with family difficulties and physical and mental disabilities, care should be provided; for students with abnormal behavior and learning difficulties, they should be patiently helped.Schools should cooperate with relevant government departments to establish information files of left-behind minors and minors in distress, and carry out care and assistance work.

Article XNUMX Schools shall conduct social life guidance, mental health counseling, adolescence education and life education according to the characteristics of minor students' physical and mental development.

Article XNUMX Schools shall organize minor students to participate in daily labor, production labor and service labor appropriate to their age, and help minor students acquire necessary labor knowledge and skills and develop good labor habits.

Article XNUMX Schools and kindergartens shall carry out publicity and education activities such as being diligent and thrifty, opposing waste, cherishing grain, and civilized diet, to help minors develop a sense of shameful waste and pride in saving, and develop civilized, healthy and green living habits .

Article XNUMX The school shall cooperate with the parents or other guardians of the minor students, reasonably arrange the study time of the minor students, and guarantee their time for rest, entertainment and physical exercise.Schools shall not occupy national statutory holidays, rest days, and winter and summer vacations, and organize collective supplementary classes for underage students in the compulsory education stage to increase their learning burden.Kindergartens and off-campus training institutions shall not conduct primary school curriculum education for preschool-aged minors.

Article XNUMX Schools and kindergartens shall provide necessary health care conditions, and assist the health department to do a good job of health care for minors in schools and kindergartens.

Article XNUMX Schools and kindergartens shall establish safety management systems, conduct safety education for minors, improve security facilities, and allocate security personnel to ensure the personal and property safety of minors during school and in kindergartens.Schools and kindergartens shall not conduct educational and teaching activities in school buildings and other facilities and places that endanger the personal safety, physical and mental health of minors.Schools and kindergartens arrange for minors to participate in collective activities such as cultural entertainment and social practice, and shall protect the physical and mental health of minors and prevent personal injury accidents.

Article XNUMX Schools and kindergartens that use school buses shall establish and improve school bus safety management systems, equip safety management personnel, conduct safety inspections on school buses on a regular basis, conduct safety education for school bus drivers, and explain school bus safety knowledge to minors. Cultivate the emergency handling skills of school bus safety accidents for minors.

Article XNUMX Schools and kindergartens shall, according to their needs, formulate contingency plans for natural disasters, accident disasters, public health incidents and other emergencies and accidental injuries, equip corresponding facilities and conduct necessary drills on a regular basis.If a minor suffers personal injury in the school, in the kindergarten, or in the off-campus or outside activities organized by the school or the kindergarten, the school or kindergarten shall immediately give medical care, handle it properly, promptly notify the parents or other guardians of the minor, and report the incident to the minor’s parents or guardians. Relevant department reports.

Article XNUMX Schools and kindergartens shall not arrange for minors to participate in commercial activities, and shall not sell or require them to purchase designated commodities and services to minors and their parents or other guardians.Schools and kindergartens shall not cooperate with off-campus training institutions to provide paid course guidance for minors.

Article XNUMX Schools shall establish a work system for the prevention and control of student bullying, and conduct education and training on the prevention and control of student bullying for faculty, staff, and students.The school shall immediately stop the bullying behavior of students, and notify the parents or other guardians of the bullying and bullied minor students to participate in the identification and handling of the bullying behavior; provide psychological counseling, education and guidance to the relevant minor students in a timely manner; parents or other guardians to provide necessary family education guidance.For minor students who are bullying, schools should strengthen discipline according to the nature and extent of the bullying behavior.Schools shall not conceal serious bullying behaviors, and shall report to the public security organs and education administrative departments in a timely manner, and cooperate with relevant departments to deal with them in accordance with the law.

Article XNUMX Schools and kindergartens shall establish a work system for preventing sexual assault and harassment of minors.Schools and kindergartens must not conceal illegal and criminal acts such as sexual assault and sexual harassment of minors. They should report to public security organs and education administrative departments in a timely manner, and cooperate with relevant departments to deal with them in accordance with the law.Schools and kindergartens shall carry out age-appropriate sex education for minors, and improve minors' self-protection awareness and ability to prevent sexual assault and harassment.Schools and kindergartens shall take relevant protective measures in a timely manner for minors who are sexually assaulted or harassed.

Article XNUMX Infant care service institutions, early education service institutions, off-campus training institutions, off-campus trustee institutions, etc. shall refer to the relevant provisions of this chapter, and do a good job in the protection of minors according to the growth characteristics and laws of minors at different ages. .

Chapter XNUMX Social Protection

Article XNUMX The whole society shall establish a good manner of caring for and caring for minors.The state encourages, supports and guides people's organizations, enterprises and institutions, social organizations, and other organizations and individuals to carry out social activities and services that are conducive to the healthy growth of minors.

Article XNUMX Residents' committees and villagers' committees shall set up special persons and special posts to be responsible for the protection of minors, assist relevant government departments to publicize laws and regulations on the protection of minors, and guide, help and supervise the parents or other guardians of minors in accordance with the law. Perform guardianship duties, establish information files for left-behind minors and minors in distress, and provide care and assistance.Residents' committees and villagers' committees shall assist the relevant government departments in monitoring the entrusted care of minors, and if they find that the entrusted person lacks the ability to provide care, neglects to perform care duties, etc., they shall report to the relevant government departments in a timely manner, and inform the parents or parents of the minors or Other guardians to help and urge the entrusted person to perform the duty of care.

Article XNUMX: Patriotism education bases, libraries, youth palaces, children's activity centers, and children's homes shall be open to minors free of charge; museums, memorial halls, science and technology museums, exhibition halls, art galleries, cultural centers, and community public welfare Internet Internet service places, as well as theaters, stadiums, zoos, botanical gardens, parks and other places, shall be open to minors for free or at a discount in accordance with relevant regulations.The state encourages patriotic education bases, museums, science and technology museums, art galleries and other public venues to set up special sessions for minors to provide targeted services for minors.The state encourages state organs, enterprises, institutions, and the military to develop their own educational resources, and to set up open days for minors to provide support for minor themed education, social practice, and professional experience.The state encourages scientific research institutions and scientific and technological social organizations to carry out science popularization activities for minors.

Article XNUMX Urban public transport, as well as highways, railways, waterways, air passenger transport, etc., shall implement free or discounted fares for minors in accordance with relevant regulations.

Article XNUMX The state encourages large-scale public places, public transportation, tourist attractions, etc. to set up mother-infant rooms, baby care stations, toilets, hand-washing stations and other sanitary facilities that are convenient for young children to use, so as to provide convenience for minors.

Article XNUMX No organization or individual may violate relevant regulations to restrict the care or preferential treatment that minors should enjoy.

Article XNUMX The state encourages the creation, publication, production and dissemination of books, newspapers and periodicals, films, radio and television programs, stage art works, audio-visual products, electronic publications and online information, etc. that are conducive to the healthy growth of minors.

Article XNUMX: News media shall strengthen publicity on the protection of minors, and conduct public opinion supervision on acts that violate the lawful rights and interests of minors.News media coverage of incidents involving minors shall be objective, prudent and appropriate, and shall not infringe upon the reputation, privacy and other legitimate rights and interests of minors.

Article XNUMX Prohibits the production, reproduction, publication, distribution, and dissemination of books containing content that promotes obscenity, pornography, violence, xie jiao, superstition, gambling, induced suicide, terrorism, separatism, extremism, etc. that endanger the physical and mental health of minors, Newspapers, films, radio and television programs, stage art works, audio-visual products, electronic publications and network information, etc.

Article XNUMX If any organization or individual publishes, publishes, or disseminates books, newspapers, films, radio and television programs, stage art works, audio-visual products, electronic publications, or online information that contains content that may affect the physical and mental health of minors, It should be indicated in a prominent manner.

Article XNUMX Prohibits the production, reproduction, publication, dissemination or possession of obscene pornographic materials and online information about minors.

Article XNUMX No organization or individual may publish, broadcast, post or distribute advertisements containing content that endanger the physical and mental health of minors; not broadcast, post or distribute commercial advertisements in schools or kindergartens; and may not use school uniforms, teaching materials, etc. to publish or disguise Post commercial advertisements.

Article XNUMX: Trafficking, kidnapping, abuse, and illegal adoption of minors are prohibited, and sexual assault and harassment of minors are prohibited.It is forbidden to coerce, lure, or instigate minors to participate in triad organizations or engage in illegal and criminal activities.It is forbidden to coerce, induce or use minors to beg.

Article XNUMX The production and sale of food, medicines, toys, utensils, game and entertainment equipment, amusement facilities, etc. for minors shall comply with national or industry standards, and shall not endanger the personal safety and physical and mental health of minors.The producers of the above-mentioned products shall mark the precautions in a prominent position, and those without the precautions shall not be sold.

Article XNUMX: Public places where minors concentrate their activities shall comply with national or industry safety standards, and take corresponding safety protection measures.Facilities that may have safety risks should be regularly maintained, and safety warning signs should be set up in conspicuous positions, indicating the appropriate age range and precautions; when necessary, special personnel should be arranged to take care of them.Large-scale shopping malls, supermarkets, hospitals, libraries, museums, science and technology museums, playgrounds, stations, wharfs, airports, tourist attractions and other places operating units should set up a security alarm system to search for lost minors.After receiving help, the venue operator should immediately activate the security alarm system, organize personnel to search and report to the public security organ.When emergencies occur in public places, priority shall be given to the rescue of minors.

Article XNUMX Accommodation operators such as hotels, guesthouses, hotels and other accommodation operators shall inquire about the contact information of parents or other guardians, the identity relationship of the occupants, etc. ; If suspected of breaking the law or crime, it shall immediately report to the public security organ, and promptly contact the parents or other guardians of the minor.

Article XNUMX There shall be no places around schools and kindergartens that are not suitable for the activities of minors, such as commercial entertainment places, bars, and Internet access service business places.Operators of commercial singing and dancing entertainment venues, bars, Internet access service business venues, and other venues that are not suitable for minors' activities shall not allow minors to enter; the electronic game equipment set up in entertainment venues, except for national statutory holidays, shall not be opened to unauthorized persons. Available for adults.Operators should set up signs prohibiting or restricting entry of minors in conspicuous positions; if it is difficult to determine whether they are minors, they should be required to show their identity documents.

Article XNUMX Tobacco, alcohol and lottery sales outlets shall not be set up around schools and kindergartens.The sale of cigarettes, alcohol, lottery tickets or the payment of lottery winnings to minors is prohibited.Tobacco, alcohol and lottery operators shall set up signs in prominent positions not to sell tobacco, alcohol or lottery tickets to minors; if it is difficult to tell whether they are minors, they shall be required to show their identity documents.No one is allowed to smoke or drink alcohol in schools, kindergartens and other public places where minors are concentrated.

Article XNUMX prohibits the provision and sale of controlled knives or other items that may cause serious injury to minors.If it is difficult for the operator to determine whether the purchaser is a minor, he should be required to show his identity document.

Article XNUMX No organization or individual may recruit minors under the age of sixteen, unless otherwise provided by the state.Commercial entertainment venues, bars, Internet access service business venues and other venues that are not suitable for minors' activities shall not recruit minors who have reached the age of XNUMX.Units and individuals recruiting minors who have reached the age of XNUMX shall implement the state's regulations on types of work, working hours, labor intensity, and protective measures, and shall not arrange for them to engage in excessively heavy, toxic, or harmful jobs that endanger the physical and mental health of minors. labor or hazardous work.No organization or individual may organize minors to perform activities such as performances that endanger their physical and mental health.With the consent of the minor's parents or other guardians, if the minor participates in activities such as performances and program production, the organizer of the activity shall protect the lawful rights and interests of the minors in accordance with relevant state regulations.

Article XNUMX When recruiting staff in a unit that has close contact with minors, it shall check with the public security organ and the people's procuratorate whether the applicant has a record of sexual assault, abuse, abduction, trafficking, violence and other crimes; , not accepted.Units that have close contact with minors shall regularly check whether their staff members have the above-mentioned illegal and criminal records every year.If its staff members are found to have the above-mentioned behaviors through inquiries or other means, they shall be dismissed in a timely manner.

Article XNUMX No organization or individual may conceal, destroy, or illegally delete minors' letters, diaries, e-mails, or other online communication content.Except under the following circumstances, no organization or individual may open or view the letters, diaries, e-mails or other online communication content of minors: (XNUMX) The parents or other guardians of minors without capacity for civil conduct open files on behalf of minors. (XNUMX) To conduct inspections in accordance with the law due to national security or to investigate criminal offenses; (XNUMX) To protect the personal safety of minors in emergency situations.

Chapter XNUMX Network Protection

Article XNUMX: The state, society, schools and families shall strengthen the publicity and education of minors' Internet literacy, cultivate and improve the Internet literacy of minors, and enhance the awareness and ability of minors to use the Internet in a scientific, civilized, safe and rational manner. Protect the legitimate rights and interests of minors in cyberspace.

Article XNUMX The state encourages and supports the creation and dissemination of online content that is conducive to the healthy growth of minors, and encourages and supports the creation and dissemination of network technologies, products, and services that specifically target minors and are suitable for minors' physical and mental health characteristics. Development, production and use.

Article XNUMX: Cybersecurity and informatization departments and other relevant departments should strengthen supervision and inspection of minors' online protection work, punish the use of the Internet to engage in activities that endanger minors' physical and mental health, and provide minors with a safe and healthy network environment .

Article XNUMX The network information department, in conjunction with the public security, culture and tourism, press and publication, film, radio and television and other departments, shall determine the types, scope, and types of online information that may affect the physical and mental health of minors according to the needs of protecting minors of different ages. Judgment criteria.

Article XNUMX: Press and publication, education, health, culture and tourism, cybersecurity and other departments shall regularly carry out publicity and education to prevent minors from being addicted to the internet, and supervise internet product and service providers to fulfill their obligations to prevent minors from being addicted to the internet , guide families, schools, and social organizations to cooperate with each other, and take scientific and reasonable methods to prevent and intervene in minors' addiction to the Internet.No organization or individual may interfere with minors' addiction to the Internet by infringing their physical and mental health.

Article XNUMX: Schools, communities, libraries, cultural centers, youth palaces and other places that provide Internet access service facilities for minors shall install network protection software for minors or take other security protection technical measures.Manufacturers and sellers of smart terminal products shall install network protection software for minors on the products, or inform users in a prominent way of the installation channels and methods of network protection software for minors.

Article XNUMX Schools shall reasonably use the Internet to carry out teaching activities.Without the permission of the school, minor students are not allowed to bring smart terminal products such as mobile phones into the classroom, and those brought into the school should be managed uniformly.If a school discovers that a minor student is addicted to the Internet, it shall promptly notify their parents or other guardians, jointly educate and guide the minor student, and help them resume their normal study and life.

Article XNUMX The parents or other guardians of minors shall improve their Internet literacy, regulate their own behaviors on the Internet, and strengthen the guidance and supervision of minors' Internet use behaviors.Parents or other guardians of minors shall avoid minors from contacting minors that are harmful or may affect their physical and mental health by installing minors' network protection software on smart terminal products, selecting service modes and management functions suitable for minors, etc. Internet information, reasonably arrange the time when minors use the Internet, and effectively prevent minors from indulging in the Internet.

Article XNUMX When processing personal information of minors through the Internet, information processors shall follow the principles of legality, legitimacy and necessity.When processing the personal information of minors under the age of fourteen, the consent of the parents or other guardians of the minors shall be obtained, except as otherwise provided by laws and administrative regulations.Where minors, parents or other guardians require the information processor to correct or delete the personal information of the minor, the information processor shall take timely measures to correct or delete the information, except as otherwise provided by laws and administrative regulations.

Article XNUMX When network service providers discover that minors release private information through the network, they shall promptly remind them and take necessary protective measures.

Article XNUMX: Network product and service providers shall not provide minors with products and services that induce their addiction.Online game, online live broadcast, online audio and video, online social networking and other network service providers shall set corresponding time management, rights management, consumption management and other functions for minors to use their services.Online education network products and services targeting minors shall not insert links to online games, and shall not push advertisements and other information unrelated to teaching.

Article XNUMX Online games can only be operated after being approved in accordance with the law.The state establishes a unified juvenile online game electronic identity authentication system.Online game service providers shall require minors to register and log in to online games with their real identity information.Online game service providers shall, in accordance with relevant state regulations and standards, classify game products, provide age-appropriate reminders, and take technical measures, and shall not allow minors to access inappropriate games or game functions.Online game service providers shall not provide online game services to minors from XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX the next day.

Article XNUMX Online live broadcast service providers shall not provide online live broadcast publisher account registration services for minors under the age of sixteen; when providing online live broadcast publisher account registration services for minors over sixteen years of age, Their identity information should be authenticated and the consent of their parents or other guardians should be obtained.

Article XNUMX No organization or individual may conduct cyberbullying acts such as insulting, slandering, threatening or maliciously damaging the image of minors through the Internet in the form of text, pictures, audio and video.Minors who suffer cyberbullying and their parents or other guardians have the right to notify network service providers to take measures such as deletion, blocking, and disconnection.After receiving the notification, the network service provider shall take necessary measures in a timely manner to stop cyberbullying and prevent the spread of information.

Article XNUMX: Online product and service providers shall establish convenient, reasonable, and effective channels for complaints and reports, disclose information such as complaints and reports, and promptly accept and handle complaints and reports involving minors.Article XNUMX Any organization or individual who discovers that online products and services contain information that endangers the physical and mental health of minors has the right to complain and report to the online product and service providers or to the departments of the Internet and public security.

Article XNUMX If network service providers discover that users have published or disseminated information that may affect the physical and mental health of minors and have not given obvious prompts, they shall give prompts or notify users to give prompts; if no prompts are made, relevant information shall not be transmitted.If network service providers discover that users publish and disseminate information containing content that is harmful to the physical and mental health of minors, they should immediately stop transmitting relevant information, take measures such as deleting, blocking, and disconnecting links, keep relevant records, and report to the Internet, the public security and other department reports.If network service providers discover that users use their network services to commit illegal and criminal acts against minors, they shall immediately stop providing network services to the users, keep relevant records, and report to the public security organs.

Chapter VI Government Protection

Article XNUMX: The functional department of the people's government at or above the county level that undertakes the specific work of the coordination mechanism for the protection of minors shall specify the relevant internal institutions or specialized personnel responsible for undertaking the work of the protection of minors.Township people's governments and sub-district offices shall set up minors protection workstations or designate specialized personnel to handle matters related to minors in a timely manner; support and guide residents' committees and villagers' committees to set up special personnel and special posts to do a good job in protecting minors.

Article XNUMX People's governments at all levels shall incorporate family education guidance services into the urban and rural public service system, carry out family education knowledge publicity, and encourage and support relevant people's organizations, enterprises, institutions, and social organizations to carry out family education guidance services.

Article XNUMX People's governments at all levels shall guarantee the right of minors to receive education, and take measures to ensure that minors left behind, minors in distress, and minors with disabilities receive compulsory education.For minor students who drop out of school who have not completed compulsory education, the education administrative department shall order their parents or other guardians to send them to the school for compulsory education.

Article XNUMX The people's governments at all levels shall develop nursery and preschool education undertakings, run infant care service institutions and kindergartens well, and support social forces in establishing mother and child rooms, infant care service institutions, and kindergartens in accordance with the law.The local people's government at or above the county level and its relevant departments shall train and train the caregivers of infant care service institutions and kindergartens, and improve their professional ethics and professional ability.

Article XNUMX People's governments at all levels shall develop vocational education, ensure that minors receive vocational education or vocational skills training, and encourage and support people's organizations, enterprises, institutions, and social organizations to provide vocational skills training services for minors.

Article XNUMX People's governments at all levels shall ensure that disabled minors who have the ability to receive general education and can adapt to school life receive education in ordinary schools and kindergartens nearby; Schools and kindergartens receive pre-school education, compulsory education and vocational education.People's governments at all levels shall guarantee the conditions for running schools and kindergartens for special education schools and kindergartens, and encourage and support social forces to run special education schools and kindergartens.

Article XNUMX Local people's governments and their relevant departments shall ensure campus safety, supervise and guide schools, kindergartens and other units to implement campus safety responsibilities, and establish emergency reporting, handling and coordination mechanisms.Article XNUMX The public security organs and other relevant departments shall maintain the public security and traffic order around the campus in accordance with the law, set up monitoring equipment and traffic safety facilities, and prevent and stop illegal and criminal acts against minors.

Article XNUMX Local people's governments shall establish and improve venues and facilities suitable for minors, support the construction and operation of venues and facilities for minors' activities for the public good, and encourage social forces to set up venues and facilities suitable for minors , and strengthen management.Local people's governments shall take measures to encourage and support schools to open cultural and sports facilities to minors for free or at a discount on national statutory holidays, rest days, and winter and summer vacations.The local people's government shall take measures to prevent any organization or individual from occupying or destroying the venues, houses and facilities of schools, kindergartens, infant care service institutions and other places where minors are active.

Article XNUMX The people's governments at all levels and their relevant departments shall provide health care and nutrition guidance to minors, and provide health care services.The health department shall regulate the vaccination of minors in accordance with the law, prevent and treat common and frequently-occurring diseases of minors, strengthen the prevention and management of infectious diseases, do a good job in injury prevention and intervention, and guide and supervise schools, kindergartens, infants and young children. Nursing services carry out health care work.The education administrative department shall strengthen the mental health education of minors, and establish a mechanism for early detection and timely intervention of minors' psychological problems.The health department should do a good job of psychological treatment for minors, psychological crisis intervention, and early identification, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

Article XNUMX: People's governments at all levels and their relevant departments implement classified protection for minors in distress, and take measures to meet their basic needs in life, education, safety, medical rehabilitation, housing, etc.

Article XNUMX Under any of the following circumstances, the civil affairs department shall provide temporary guardianship of minors according to law: (XNUMX) The minors are vagrancy and begging or their identity is unknown, and their parents or other guardians cannot be found temporarily; (XNUMX) The whereabouts of the guardians Unknown and no one else can serve as guardian; (XNUMX) The guardian cannot perform guardianship duties due to his own objective reasons or due to natural disasters, accidents, public health incidents and other emergencies, resulting in lack of guardianship of minors; (XNUMX) The guardian refuses or neglect to perform guardianship duties, resulting in minors being left unattended; (XNUMX) guardians instigate or use minors to commit illegal and criminal acts, and minors need to be taken away and resettled; (XNUMX) minors are subject to guardianship Serious injuries or threats to personal safety require emergency placement; (XNUMX) Other circumstances prescribed by law.Article XNUMX: For minors under temporary guardianship, the civil affairs department may entrust relatives to raise them, foster care at home, etc. to place them, or they may hand them over to minors' rescue and protection agencies or child welfare agencies for custody and support.During the period of temporary guardianship, upon assessment by the civil affairs department, if the guardian is again qualified to perform guardianship duties, the civil affairs department may send the minor back to the guardian for support.

Article XNUMX Under any of the following circumstances, the civil affairs department shall provide long-term guardianship of the minor in accordance with the law: (XNUMX) The parents or other guardians of the minor cannot be found; (XNUMX) The guardian is dead or declared dead and has no Others may serve as guardians; (XNUMX) The guardian loses the guardianship ability and no one else can serve as the guardian; (XNUMX) The people's court decides to revoke the guardian's qualification and appoints the civil affairs department as the guardian; (XNUMX) Other circumstances stipulated by law.

Article XNUMX After the civil affairs department conducts an adoption assessment, it can legally hand over the minor under its long-term guardianship to a qualified applicant for adoption.After the adoption relationship is established, the guardianship relationship between the civil affairs department and the minor is terminated.

Article XNUMX Where the civil affairs department undertakes the duties of temporary guardianship or long-term guardianship, the finance, education, health, public security and other departments shall cooperate according to their respective duties.People's governments at or above the county level and their civil affairs departments shall, as needed, set up minors' rescue and protection institutions and child welfare institutions, which are responsible for taking in and raising minors under the guardianship of the civil affairs department.

Article XNUMX: People's governments at or above the county level shall open a unified national minor protection hotline to promptly accept and refer complaints and reports that violate the lawful rights and interests of minors; encourage and support people's organizations, enterprises, institutions, and social organizations to participate in Build a minor protection service platform, service hotline, and service site to provide consultation and assistance on minors protection.

Article XNUMX: The state establishes an information inquiry system for sexual assault, abuse, abduction, trafficking, violence and other crimes, and provides free inquiry services to units that have close contact with minors.

Article XNUMX Local people's governments shall cultivate, guide and regulate relevant social organizations and social workers to participate in the protection of minors, provide family education and guidance services, and provide psychological counseling, rehabilitation assistance, guardianship, and adoption assessment for minors, etc. Provide professional services.

Chapter VII Judicial Protection

Article XNUMX: Public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts, and judicial administrative departments shall perform their duties in accordance with the law to protect the lawful rights and interests of minors.

Article XNUMX: Public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts, and judicial administrative departments shall designate specialized agencies or designate specialized personnel to be responsible for handling cases involving minors.Personnel handling cases involving minors shall undergo special training and be familiar with the physical and mental characteristics of minors.There should be female staff in specialized agencies or specialized personnel.Public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts, and judicial administrative departments shall implement evaluation and assessment standards for the above-mentioned institutions and personnel that are compatible with the protection of minors.

Article XNUMX When handling cases involving minors, public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts and judicial administrative departments shall consider the physical and mental characteristics of minors and the needs of healthy growth, and use language and expressions that minors can understand. Hear the views of minors.

Article XNUMX: Public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts, judicial administrative departments, and other organizations and individuals shall not disclose the names, images, domiciles, schools attended, and other information that may identify minors in relevant cases. However, the case of finding missing or abducted minors is excluded.

Article XNUMX For minors in need of legal aid or judicial aid, legal aid agencies or public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts and judicial administrative departments shall provide assistance and provide them with legal aid or judicial aid in accordance with the law.Legal aid institutions shall assign lawyers who are familiar with the physical and mental characteristics of minors to provide legal aid services to minors.Legal aid institutions and lawyers' associations shall provide guidance and training to lawyers handling legal aid cases for minors.

Article XNUMX The people's procuratorate shall, by exercising its procuratorial power, supervise the litigation activities involving minors in accordance with the law.

Article XNUMX: Where the lawful rights and interests of minors are violated, and the relevant organizations and individuals do not file a lawsuit on their behalf, the people's procuratorate may urge and support them to file a lawsuit; where public interests are involved, the people's procuratorate has the right to file a public interest lawsuit.

Article XNUMX When hearing inheritance cases, the people's courts shall protect minors' rights of inheritance and bequests in accordance with the law.When a people's court hears a divorce case involving the maintenance of a minor child, it shall respect the true wishes of the minor child who has reached the age of eight, and handle it in accordance with the law according to the specific circumstances of both parties and in accordance with the principle that is most beneficial to the minor child.

Article XNUMX Where a minor's parents or other guardians fail to perform guardianship duties in accordance with the law or seriously infringe upon the lawful rights and interests of the minor under guardianship, the people's court may, upon the application of the relevant person or unit, issue a personal safety protection order or Revocation of guardianship.The parents or other guardians whose qualifications as guardians have been revoked shall continue to bear the maintenance expenses in accordance with the law.

Article XNUMX: People's courts may, on their own or entrust social organizations, conduct social investigations on the relevant circumstances of minors when trying divorce, support, adoption, guardianship, visit, etc. cases involving minors.

Article XNUMX Public security organs, people's procuratorates, and people's courts interrogate juvenile criminal suspects and defendants, and interrogate juvenile victims and witnesses. People are present, and appropriate methods and venues are used to protect minors' right to reputation, privacy and other legitimate rights and interests.When a people's court hears a case involving minors, minor victims and witnesses generally do not appear in court to testify; if they must appear in court, protection measures such as technical means to protect their privacy and psychological intervention shall be adopted.

Article XNUMX: Public security organs, people's procuratorates, and people's courts shall cooperate with other relevant government departments, people's organizations, and social organizations to implement necessary psychological interventions, Financial aid, legal aid, transfer placement and other protective measures.

Article XNUMX: Public security organs, people's procuratorates, and people's courts handling cases of sexual assault or violence against minors shall take measures such as simultaneous audio and video recording when questioning minor victims and witnesses, and try to complete them all at once; If the victim or witness is female, it should be carried out by female staff.

Article XNUMX: For minors who violate the law and commit crimes, the policy of education, probation, and rescue shall be implemented, and the principle of education as the primary and punishment as the supplement shall be adhered to.Minors who violate the law and commit crimes shall not be discriminated against in terms of further education or employment after being punished in accordance with the law.

Article XNUMX: Where public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts, and judicial administrative departments find that the relevant units have not fulfilled their responsibilities for the protection of minors such as education, management, rescue, and care, they shall make recommendations to the unit.The proposed unit shall make a written reply within one month.

Article XNUMX: Public security organs, people's procuratorates, people's courts, and judicial administrative departments shall carry out publicity and education on the rule of law for juveniles in light of the actual situation and according to the characteristics of cases involving juveniles.

Article XNUMX: The state encourages and supports social organizations and social workers to participate in psychological intervention, legal aid, social investigation, social care, education and correction, and community correction for minors in cases involving minors.

Chapter VIII Legal Liability

Article XNUMX If the provisions of the second paragraph of Article XNUMX of this Law are violated, and serious consequences are caused by the failure to perform the reporting obligation, the competent department at a higher level or the unit to which they belong shall impose sanctions on the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons according to law.

Article XNUMX Where a minor's parents or other guardians fail to perform guardianship duties according to law or infringe upon the minor's lawful rights and interests, the residents' committee or villagers' committee of the place where they live shall advise and stop them; if the circumstances are serious, the residents' committee . The villagers committee shall report to the public security organ in a timely manner.When the public security organ receives a report or the public security organ, the people's procuratorate, or the people's court discovers that the parents or other guardians of the minor are in the above-mentioned situations during the handling of the case, they shall be reprimanded and may be ordered to receive family education guidance.

Article XNUMX Schools, kindergartens, infant care services and other institutions and their teaching staff violate the provisions of Articles XNUMX, XNUMX and XNUMX of this law, and the public security, education, health Health, market supervision and management and other departments shall order corrections according to the division of responsibilities; if corrections are refused or the circumstances are serious, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible personnel shall be punished according to law.

Article XNUMX Those who violate the provisions of Article XNUMX, Article XNUMX and Article XNUMX of this Law and fail to grant free or preferential treatment to minors shall be subject to market supervision and management, culture and tourism, transportation According to the division of responsibilities, other departments shall order corrections within a time limit and give warnings; those who refuse to make corrections shall be fined not less than XNUMX yuan but not more than XNUMX yuan.

Article XNUMX: Those who violate the provisions of Articles XNUMX and XNUMX of this Law shall be ordered to make corrections within a time limit by the departments of press and publication, radio and television, film, and Internet in accordance with the division of responsibilities, given a warning, and the illegal gains shall be confiscated. A fine of not more than XNUMX yuan may be imposed concurrently; if refusal to make corrections or the circumstances are serious, the relevant business shall be suspended, production or business shall be suspended, or the business license or relevant license shall be revoked. If there is no illegal income or the illegal income is less than XNUMX million yuan, a fine of not less than XNUMX yuan but not more than XNUMX million yuan shall be imposed.

Article XNUMX Where venue operators violate the provisions of Paragraph XNUMX of Article XNUMX of this Law, and accommodation operators violate the provisions of Article XNUMX of this Law, the market supervision and management, emergency management, public security and other departments shall, according to their duties The division of labor is ordered to make corrections within a time limit and given a warning; if corrections are refused or serious consequences are caused, they shall be ordered to suspend business for rectification or revoke their business licenses and relevant permits, and impose a fine of not less than XNUMX yuan but not more than XNUMX yuan.

Article XNUMX Where relevant operators violate the provisions of Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX of Article XNUMX, and Article XNUMX of this Law, the departments of culture and tourism, market supervision and management, tobacco monopoly, public security and other departments shall According to the division of responsibilities, order correction within a time limit, give a warning, confiscate illegal gains, and may concurrently impose a fine of not more than XNUMX yuan; if correction is refused or the circumstances are serious, order to suspend business for rectification or revoke business licenses and relevant licenses, and may concurrently impose a fine of XNUMX yuan A fine of not less than XNUMX yuan but not more than XNUMX yuan.

Article XNUMX Whoever violates the provisions of Paragraph XNUMX of Article XNUMX of this Law and smokes or drinks alcohol in schools, kindergartens and other public places where minors are concentrated shall be punished by the departments of health, education, market supervision and management, etc. According to the division of responsibilities, order corrections and give warnings, and may concurrently impose a fine of not more than XNUMX yuan; if the site manager fails to stop it in time, the health, education, market supervision and management departments will give warnings according to the division of responsibilities, and impose a fine of not more than XNUMX yuan. .

Article XNUMX For those who violate the provisions of Article XNUMX of this Law, the departments of culture and tourism, human resources and social security, and market supervision and administration shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, order corrections within a time limit, give warnings, confiscate illegal gains, and may A fine of not more than XNUMX yuan shall be imposed; if corrections are refused or the circumstances are serious, it shall be ordered to suspend production or business, or its business license or relevant licenses shall be revoked, and a fine of not less than XNUMX yuan but not more than XNUMX yuan shall be imposed.

Article XNUMX Where a unit that has close contact with minors violates the provisions of Article XNUMX of this Law, fails to perform the duty of inquiry, or recruits or continues to recruit personnel with relevant illegal and criminal records, education, human resources and social The security, market supervision and management departments shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, order corrections within a time limit, give warnings, and impose a fine of not more than XNUMX yuan; if they refuse to make corrections or cause serious consequences, they shall be ordered to suspend business for rectification or revoke their business licenses and relevant licenses, and shall also be sentenced to five A fine of not less than XNUMX yuan but not more than XNUMX yuan shall be imposed, and the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible personnel shall be punished according to law.

Article XNUMX Information processors violate the provisions of Article XNUMX of this Law, or network product and service providers violate Articles XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX, and XNUMX of this Law Article XNUMX, Article XNUMX, Article XNUMX, the relevant departments of public security, Internet information, telecommunications, press and publication, radio and television, culture and tourism shall order corrections, give warnings, and confiscate illegal gains according to the division of responsibilities. If the illegal income is more than one million yuan, a fine of not less than one time but not more than ten times the illegal income shall be imposed; if there is no illegal income or the illegal income is less than one million yuan, a fine of not less than one hundred thousand yuan but not more than one million yuan shall be imposed concurrently, and the person shall be directly responsible. The person in charge and other responsible persons shall be fined not less than XNUMX yuan but not more than XNUMX yuan; if they refuse to make corrections or the circumstances are serious, they may be ordered to suspend relevant businesses, suspend business for rectification, close websites, revoke their business licenses, or revoke relevant permits.

Article XNUMX: Where state functionaries neglect their duties, abuse their powers, practice favoritism, and harm the lawful rights and interests of minors, they shall be punished according to law.

Article XNUMX Whoever violates the provisions of this Law, infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of minors, and causes personal, property or other damage, shall bear civil liability according to law.Those who violate the provisions of this Law and constitute violations of public security administration shall be given public security administration penalties according to law; those who constitute a crime shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to law.

Chapter IX Supplementary Provisions

Article XNUMX The meanings of the following terms in this Law: (XNUMX) Units that have close contact with minors refer to educational institutions such as schools and kindergartens; off-campus training institutions; minors rescue and protection institutions, child welfare institutions, etc. Adult placement and rescue institutions; infant care service institutions, early education service institutions; off-campus trusteeship and temporary care institutions; domestic service institutions; medical institutions providing medical services for minors; other education and training for minors , guardianship, rescue, nursing, medical and other responsibilities of enterprises, institutions, social organizations, etc. (XNUMX) Schools refer to ordinary primary and secondary schools, special education schools, secondary vocational schools, and specialized schools. (XNUMX) Student bullying refers to the behavior that occurs between students, one party deliberately or maliciously conducts bullying and insults through physical, language and network means, causing personal injury, property damage or mental damage to the other party.

Article XNUMX Foreigners and stateless persons under the age of XNUMX in China shall be protected in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Law.

Article 2021 This Law shall come into force on June 6, 1.

主席令信息中华人民共和国主席令第五十号《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》已由中华人民共和国第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十一次会议于1991年9月4日通过,现予公布,自1992年1月1日起施行。中华人民共和国主席 杨尚昆1991年9月4日

中华人民共和国主席令第六十号《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》已由中华人民共和国第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十五次会议于2006年12月29日修订通过,现将修订后的《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》公布,自2007年6月1日起施行。中华人民共和国主席 胡锦涛2006年12月29日

中华人民共和国主席令第五十七号《中华人民共和国未成年人保护法》已由中华人民共和国第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十二次会议于2020年10月17日修订通过,现予公布,自2021年6月1日起施行。中华人民共和国主席 习近平2020年10月17日

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