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Serving the real estate market Industry concepts that the real estate industry needs to know

house building overview

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Architecture is generally considered to be a general term for buildings and structures.Among them, houses or places for people to produce, live or carry out other activities are called "buildings", such as residences, schools, office buildings, etc., and people are habitually called buildings.The buildings in which people do not produce and live are called "structures", such as dams, chimneys, etc.

building elements

There are three main reasons for the construction of construction: architectural function, architectural technology and architectural image.

  1. Architectural function: refers to the use requirements that a building must meet in terms of material and spirit.
  2. Construction technology: It is the means of building houses, including building materials and product technology, structural technology, construction technology, equipment technology, etc. Buildings cannot exist without technology.
  3. Architectural image: The factors that make up the architectural image include the shape of the building, the combination of interior and exterior spaces, the three-dimensional facets, the details and key decorative treatments, the texture and color of materials, and changes in light and shadow.

The three elements of architecture are dialectically unified and inseparable.Architectural function plays a leading role; architectural technology is a means to achieve an end, and technology has a constraining and promoting effect on functions.The architectural image is a reflection of function and technology.

Classification of buildings

According to the nature of use of buildings, it can be divided into: industrial buildings, agricultural buildings, civil buildings: civil buildings include A, residential buildings: can be divided into apartments, garden houses, new houses, new-style lanes, old-style lanes, and simple houses; B. Public buildings.

According to the scale and number of buildings, it can be divided into: large-scale buildings; large-scale buildings.

According to the number of floors or the total height of the building, it can be divided into: low-rise buildings; multi-storey buildings; small high-rise buildings; high-rise buildings; super high-rise buildings.

Load-bearing form of building structure

Steel structures, reinforced concrete structures, steel and reinforced concrete structures, brick-concrete structures, brick-timber structures, other structures (bamboo, wood, bamboo and wood).

  1. Stacked type (buildings below 6F): used for residence, office, school, hospital.
  2. Frame type: Residential and office buildings around 20F.
  3. Shear wall type: high-rise.
  4. Cylinder type: large span, large space, super high-rise.

structure of buildings

As far as common civil buildings are concerned, there are roughly six basic components: foundation, wall or column, floor, stair, roof, and doors and windows.Building accessories and facilities such as ventilation ducts, garbage ducts, flues, and closets can be set according to the functional requirements of the building.

1. Foundation: It is located at the bottom of the building, buried below the natural floor, bears all the loads from the upper part, and transfers these loads to the soil layer below (ie the foundation).The foundation is the main stress-bearing component of the house, and its structural requirements are firm, stable, durable, able to withstand the erosion of freezing, groundwater and contained chemical substances, and maintain sufficient service life.

2. Wall or column: It is the vertical load-bearing member of the house. It bears various loads from the roof and each floor, and transmits these loads to the foundation reliably.The design for these members must meet strength and stiffness requirements.As a wall, the outer wall also has a maintenance function to resist the impact of wind, frost, snow, rain and cold and heat on the interior.The inner wall also has the function of dividing the room, so the wall body is often required to be heat preservation, heat insulation, sound insulation and so on.

Explanation of related words

What is real estate?

Real estate: refers to the sum of house property and land property, and refers to the buildings and attachments on the land.

What is real estate?

Real estate refers to the property embodied in the physical form of the house on the land, and it has a clear ownership relationship in law.

What is real estate?

The real estate industry includes the development of land, the construction, maintenance and management of houses, the paid assignment and transfer of land use rights, the sale and lease of house ownership, the mortgage of real estate, and the resulting real estate market.The real estate industry involves the whole process of real estate production, circulation, consumption and management. It is the product of the development of commodity economy to a certain stage.It belongs to the category of tertiary industry.

What is a real estate transaction?

Real estate transactions refer to various transaction activities in which real estate is used as a commodity, including the assignment, transfer, lease and mortgage of land use rights, and the sale, lease, pawn, swap, auction, and other ownership houses together with related land use rights. Various business activities in the process of real estate circulation.According to national regulations, all real estate transaction activities must enter the real estate market and be included in government management, and real estate transaction procedures must be handled through the real estate transaction management agency.The constituent elements of real estate transactions have three aspects: one is the main body of the transaction, that is, the organizations or individuals engaged in real estate transactions, and they constitute both the buyer and the seller or the supply and demand sides in the transaction activities; the second is the object of the transaction, that is, the object used for the transaction It includes land and houses, and real estate knowledge, intelligence information, and negotiable securities are also the objects of the real estate transaction market; the third is transaction media, that is, real estate transaction intermediaries, which can be divided into transaction media (such as brokers, trustees, etc.) companies, exchanges, etc.), financing media (such as financial institutions that provide loans for various real estate investments).

Because real estate itself has the characteristics of immovability, regionality and individuality, different characteristics of real estate transactions and general commodity transactions are formed. For example, general commodity transactions can be concentrated in a fixed place for people to choose, while real estate transactions must be Conduct field research.Therefore, the real estate market is a market without counters.At the same time, in many cases, real estate transactions cannot be "paid in one hand and loaned in the other", and the conversion of land use rights and house ownership cannot be completed in an instant. From this, it can be summarized that real estate transactions have the following characteristics:

  1. The real estate transaction is the transfer of the intangible rights of the real estate and the real estate, and it is the organic unity of the real estate and the real estate.
  2. Real estate transactions require a large amount of investment and are expensive, so installment payments can be adopted.Real estate transaction activities can be completed at one time or in stages.
  3. Real estate transactions are highly regional, and real estate prices in different regions are very different.
  4. Real estate transactions are conditional and must be restricted by national laws and regulations. Both parties to the transaction must sign a transaction contract, which is registered, reviewed and registered by the real estate transaction management department.
  5. The value-added function of real estate determines that real estate transactions also have the dual nature of consumption and investment.

What is the real estate market?

Real estate market: It consists of the primary real estate market (commonly known as the land market), the secondary real estate market (commonly known as real estate development), and the tertiary real estate market (commonly known as scattered transactions).The above three levels of the market are called the real estate market.

Primary market: the land market, which is controlled by the land and resources department, and transfers the land use rights to real estate developers with development qualifications through agreements, bidding or auctions.

Secondary market: that is, real estate developers build properties on the land after obtaining land use rights, and then sell the properties to the majority of small owners through sales.

Tertiary market: that is, after the small owner purchases the property from the developer, he owns the ownership of the property (based on the real estate certificate), and then transfers the ownership of the property to the transferee.

Real estate can be divided into the following categories based on the nature of the real estate:

A, commercial housing B, non-commercial housing C, fundraising housing D, welfare housing E, private housing

Real estate use can be divided into the following points:

Office building: 1. Standard office building 2. Commercial and residential office building

Residential: 1. High-rise residential (small high-rise) 2. Multi-storey residential

Shops: 1. Street-facing ground floor shop 2. Podium shop

What is land?

Narrow sense: land refers only to the land surface on the earth;

Broadly defined: Land includes not only the aerial environment and subsurface layers, but also land, inland waters, tidal flats and islands.As a means of production, land has the characteristics of limited quantity, fixed location, and long-term use. It is not only a means of production, but also an object of production relations.

What is the land type?

According to its nature, land is divided into: residential, commercial and residential, industrial, storage, comprehensive land, land for public facilities and free fund-raising, low-profit real estate.

What is land use right?

The so-called land use right refers to the legal right to operate and use the land of a certain plot, that is, the entity or individual with the main qualification to use the land shall go through the application and registration of the land use right in accordance with the legal procedures, and obtain the land use right. The right certificate, which is recognized by law as the right to possess, use, and partially gain and dispose of the land.It is the legal embodiment of my country's land use system.Land use right is one of the contents of land ownership, and its use must conform to the interests of the land owner and the interests of society at the same time.For example, the use of land use rights must consider the surrounding environment, and must not cause adverse effects on the natural environment and neighbors, that is, not pollute or destroy the natural environment, and not affect the ventilation, ventilation, and lighting of neighbors.Units and individuals with the right to use the land have the obligation to protect, manage and rationally utilize the land.

What are the methods of granting land use rights?

  1. Transfer of land use rights by agreement: The transfer of land use rights by agreement means that the land management department, on behalf of the government and the land user, based on the announced market price of the land, determines the land price through negotiation, and transfers the land use right to the land user. the behavior of.
  2. Assignment of land use rights by bidding: refers to the act of public bidding by the land management department or inviting qualified bidders to bid, and the successful bidder determined after the bidding obtains the land use right.
  3. Auction of land-use rights: refers to the behavior that bidders should pay the price in a prescribed manner at a specified time and in a public place, under the auspices of the auctioneer authorized by the land management department, and the person with the highest bid obtains the land-use right.

What is the land price?

The price of land use transfer, including land use transfer fee, municipal supporting facilities and land development fee.

What is the term of land use right?

The term of land use right means that the government transfers the state-owned land use right to the land user within a certain number of years by means of auction, bidding and agreement. Those who can apply for renewal can continue to use the land after the approval of the land price.

How is the useful life of the land determined?

For the land that has signed the "Land Use Right Assignment Contract" with the Land and Resources Bureau, the land use period shall be in accordance with the provisions of the state, namely: XNUMX years for residential land; XNUMX years for industry, commerce, education, science and technology, culture, health, and sports. XNUMX years for tourism and entertainment land; XNUMX years for comprehensive land or other land.

What is a residence?

A house is a house for people to live in.People can live in any house, but not all houses can be called dwellings.A house for people to live in should have functions and facilities for people to live in.Those houses that do not have residential purposes, such as offices, shops, and factories, generally do not have these functional facilities, which is a fundamental symbol for dividing residential and non-residential.People have also gone through a process from scratch to design and build houses for their own living. The original tree holes and rock caves only provided a natural habitat for our ancestors.With the evolution of human beings and the enhancement of labor skills, people gradually realize that they need to create and change their living conditions through labor, so through artificial labor and nature, humans continue to build and improve houses and their various functions. As the crystallization of human labor, housing in turn provides the necessary conditions for human survival, enjoyment and development.

What is residential property rights?

If a person has the right to occupy, use, benefit and dispose of a dwelling at the same time, he also owns the property right to the dwelling.Ownership of a dwelling is the same as ownership of a dwelling.The characteristics are: ① Ownership is an absolute right that does not require the assistance of others when exercising it. ②The property right of the house is the right to dominate the house, and no one may interfere. ③ A residence has only one property right, which is exclusive.

What is "joint ownership" of residential property?

The joint ownership of residential property is determined by the joint relationship of several persons.The most common is the relationship between husband and wife.Each co-owner cannot have his own part of the property rights, so the shared rights and obligations of the residential property are generally shared.Unless the common relationship is extinguished or dissolved, a common property cannot be divided.

What is a residential area?

A residential area, also known as a "residential area", is a complete residential area that is divided by urban roads and natural lines (such as rivers) and is not traversed by arterial roads.Residential quarters generally set up a complete set of grass-roots professional service facilities and management institutions that can meet the daily needs of residents.

What types of dwellings are included?

There are many classification indicators of modern urban housing. According to the number of residential floors, they can be divided into: low-rise residences (courtyard-style residences), multi-storey residences, and high-rise residences (super high-rise residences). For: mixed-structure residential (brick wood, block, brick-concrete, steel-concrete), large formwork structure residential (in-situ cast-in-place inner and outer walls, cast-in-place outer wall hanging boards, inner wall cast-in-place outer wall brickwork), light frame Board house, simple structure house (dry base, raw wood structure, arch structure, bamboo and wood structure, mud stone structure, light steel structure); According to the characteristics of residential design, it can be divided into: inner corridor-type residence, outer corridor-type residence (tube-type building), retreat-type residence (step-type residence); According to the purpose and function of the residence, it can be divided into: ordinary residence, youth residence, elderly residence, disabled residence, villa type residence (courtyard type residence).

What is a pre-sale commercial residence?

Refers to the pre-sold commercial residential buildings that have not yet been completed (or even started), also known as "buying off-the-plan".This is an internationally popular way of raising funds for residential construction.According to the relevant regulations of the state, the purchase price received in advance shall not exceed 50% of the total selling price before the construction of commercial houses.

What is public housing?

It refers to the residential buildings invested, constructed and sold by the state, state-owned enterprises and institutions.Before the house is sold, the property of the house belongs to the state.

What is private residence?

A dwelling that is purchased and built by an individual or family.Public housing is sold to individuals and families through the housing market, i.e. converted to private housing.

What are the residential building installation fees?

Mainly refers to the construction cost, machinery usage fee, technical equipment fee, technical equipment, construction management fee, etc. used for the main housing project itself.Among them, the cost of building materials accounts for a large proportion.The total cost of the entire construction and installation project is usually referred to as the "total project cost".

What is a commercial housing?

Commodity house refers to the real estate that the developer obtains the land use right at the market price for development and construction and is approved by the Land and Resources Bureau to circulate in the market. .

What is Welfare Commodity Housing?

Welfare commercial housing refers to the housing that the government exempts from the real estate land price according to the housing system reform plan, and sells it to enterprises or qualified employees at the cost of the house.

What is low-profit commercial housing?

The difference between low-profit commercial housing and welfare housing is that the land price is unavoidable, and there is a low profit slightly higher than the cost of real estate. This type of housing is financed and constructed by the competent government unit, and can be used to solve the housing difficulties of enterprise employees. The price is determined by the government and implements a preferential price policy.

What is a housing unit?

The affordable housing refers to the housing (a type of affordable housing) constructed by the implementation of the national “housing project”. It is a sale provided by the state with loans and local self-financing funds for the majority of low- and middle-income families, especially the destitute households below 4 square meters. Priced below cost, non-profit housing subsidized by the government.

What is affordable housing?

Affordable housing refers to commercial housing with the nature of social security, which has the characteristics of economy and applicability.Economy means that the housing price is moderate relative to the market price and can adapt to the consumption capacity of low- and middle-income families; applicability means that the use of housing is emphasized in housing design and construction standards, rather than lowering construction standards.It is an ordinary housing built by the state to solve the housing problem of low- and middle-income families.This type of housing is also called economical and practical housing because the cost of this type of housing is slightly lower than that of ordinary commercial housing due to the reduction or exemption of part of the cost of project application and construction.Affordable housing includes affordable housing and poverty relief housing.

What are the "five certificates" of commercial housing?

Real estate developers should have:

  1. "State-owned Land Use Certificate": my country's "Land Administration Law" stipulates that land is owned by the state or collectively, and only the right to use state-owned land can be transferred. Move away, only houses built on state-owned land can be sold.If the state-owned land use right cannot be obtained, the real estate certificate cannot be obtained, and the house cannot be transferred, mortgaged, leased, etc. normally.To obtain the right to use state-owned land, the land transfer fee must be paid to the state;
  2. "Construction Land Planning Permit": According to my country's "Land Administration Law", construction land must comply with the country's overall land use planning;
  3. "Construction Project Planning Permit": where the house is built, how high it is to be built, and what the floor area ratio is, it must be approved by the planning department;
  4. "Construction Project Construction Permit": Only projects with this permit can be constructed;
  5. "Commodity House Pre-sale License": Without this license, the house cannot be sold or pre-sold. Generally speaking, if the developer does not have the first four licenses, he cannot obtain this license. 

What is an export license?

Those who pre-sell houses overseas must apply for this certificate before they can sell.

What is a real estate sales contract?

The real estate sales contract is uniformly prepared by the Housing Authority to clarify the rights of buyers and sellers. All commercial housing sales must sign this contract. At present, real estate contracts for domestic sales also need to be notarized, and real estate contracts for export must be notarized.

What is a bank mortgage?

Bank mortgage refers to an economic act of reaching a mortgage loan with a bank when purchasing a building.The owner pays part of the building payment first, and the rest is paid by the bank on behalf of the buyer. The owner of the purchased building will be mortgaged to the bank, and the buyer will pay the bank's principal and interest in installments.This method is called a bank mortgage.

What is a model home?

A model house is a house with the same structure as the actual house, but the decoration standard is determined according to the developer's sales brochure.

What is a model room?

The decoration of the model room is different from that of the model room, and the purpose is to provide customers with decoration reference.

construction of housesWhat department determines the area and public area?

The building area and public area of ​​the house shall be determined by the Cadastral Surveying and Mapping Brigade or the Surveying and Mapping Squadron of the Municipal Housing Administration.

What is the transfer of purchasing first-hand commercial housing from developers?

It is a real estate secondary market transfer.

When applying for registration for the purchase of first-hand commercial housing from the developer, what are the taxes and fees that the buyer needs to pay?

  1. Stamp duty: the amount is 5/XNUMX of the transaction price, with a decal of XNUMX yuan for each certificate;
  2. Registration fee: The amount is one thousandth of the transaction price.
  3. Deed tax: The amount is XNUMX% of the transaction price, and the current owner pays XNUMX%.
  4. Public maintenance fund: 35 yuan/square meter

What are the starting price, average price, pre-sale price and one-time buyout price of commercial housing?

  1. Starting price: The lowest price among the sales prices of each floor of a property, that is, the starting price.
  2. Average price: The average price per square meter is obtained by dividing the sum of the sales prices of each unit by the sum of the unit building area.
  3. Pre-sale price: Pre-sale price is also a term used in the pre-sale (sale) contract of commercial housing; pre-sale price is not the official price. When commercial housing is delivered for use, it should be subject to the price approved by the department with approval authority.
  4. One-time buyout price: A one-time price agreed upon by the buyer and the seller.The one-time buyout price is a special price term in the real estate sales contract. After it is determined, the buyer or the seller must perform the obligation to pay or deliver the house according to this, and cannot be changed arbitrarily.

What are the contents of the commercial housing sales contract?

The commercial housing sales contract shall specify the following:

  1. Land use basis, location of commercial housing, delivery and use time of commercial housing
  2. Total price, payment method, payment time
  3. The building area, interior area, apportioned area and apportioned location shall be indicated separately.
  4. The sales method of commercial housing (pre-sale or existing housing sales)
  5. The nature of property rights of commodity houses, the agreed time limit for property rights registration and the responsibilities of relevant parties.
  6. Conventions where design changes occur
  7. Commitment and responsibility for commercial housing decoration, design standards, housing quality.
  8. Property management methods and after-sales warranty and maintenance responsibilities
  9. How to deal with the difference between the contracted area and the measured area
  10. Liability for breach of contract

What is property management?

Property management refers to the property management company accepting the entrustment of the property owner or the owner's committee, in accordance with the property management contract or agreement, to manage all kinds of housing buildings and ancillary facilities and sites that have been put into use, and at the same time, the surrounding environment and cleanliness of the housing area. Sanitation, security, public green space, and road maintenance are unified and professionally managed, and various comprehensive services are provided to residents.Property management is a paid labor integrating management, operation and service. It is managed in accordance with the principles of socialization, marketization and specialization.

What is an owner's committee?

The owners committee is an organization that implements autonomous management on behalf of all owners in the property management area.The owners' committee is elected by the owners' meeting from all owners. It is a social group established with the approval of the government to represent the legitimate rights and interests of all the owners of the property, and its legitimate rights and interests are protected by national laws.

The members of the owners' committee are elected from among the owners for a term of 3 years and may be re-elected.The owners' committee is held by adults with good moral character, enthusiastic public welfare undertakings, strong sense of responsibility, certain organizational skills and necessary working hours.During the term of office, the replacement, increase or decrease of members shall be submitted to the owners' meeting for confirmation after being approved by the owners' committee.

What is three links and one leveling?

Refers to the land on the basis of development to meet the standards of water, electricity, access, site leveling.

What is Seven Links and One Leveling?

Refers to the upper and lower water, road, telecommunications, gas, electricity, heat, and site leveling.

What is the construction land area?

The land area within the scope of construction land demarcated by the urban planning administrative department.

What is the building area?

Refers to the horizontal projected area of ​​the outer wall of the building or the periphery of the structure.

What is the base area of ​​a building?

Refers to the horizontal projection area of ​​the natural layer building outer wall or the structure periphery of the building touching the ground.

What is the usable area?

The usable area includes the area of ​​the wall structure that is directly used for office, production, business or living, and the kitchen, toilet or toilet of auxiliary rooms, as well as closets, indoor passages, indoor stairs, balconies, basements, annexes (Mezzanine), attics with areas above 2.2 meters, if the wall is shared by two households (that is, a common wall), the area to which it belongs shall be shared equally by the two households.

What is common building area?

The area available for public use in the building includes the shared public building area and the non-shared public building area.

What is common area?

The public area refers to the area used in the main body of the building and outside the unit type, including the equipment floor or technical floor with a floor height of more than 2.2 meters, indoor and outdoor stairs, stair cantilevered platforms, inner and outer corridors, foyer, elevator and machine room, door buckets, columns with columns The property rights of the awning, stairwell, water tank room, elevator machine room, etc. of the enclosure structure at the protruding level should be jointly owned by all the owners participating in the sharing of the public area in the building, and the property management department will manage it uniformly.

What is common area apportionment?

The public area that should be apportioned by each household (or unit) shall be calculated according to the following principles:

(1) If there is an area division document or agreement, the calculation shall be carried out according to the document or agreement;

(2) If there is no area division document or agreement, it shall be apportioned according to the proportion of the area used.That is: the public area that should be apportioned by each household = the public area that should be apportioned × the area used by each household / the sum of the area used by each household

what isRoom rate?

The ratio of the usable area of ​​the suite to the building area, which is also a quantitative indicator for measuring a certain real estate.

What is the volume ratio?

The ratio of the total floor area to the plot area.

What is building coverage (building density, building factor)?

The ratio (%) of the sum of the base area of ​​all buildings within the scope of construction land to the area of ​​construction land.

What is the greening rate?

The ratio (%) of the total area of ​​various green spaces within the scope of construction land to the area of ​​construction land.The calculation of green area does not include roofs, rooftops and vertical greening.

What is green coverage?

The ratio (%) of the sum of the horizontal projected area of ​​all green plants within the scope of construction land to the area of ​​construction land.

what isSunlight spacing?

The distance between buildings and buildings, it must meet the requirements of a proportion.

what isHall and room (bay)?

Refers to the width of this room, refers to the distance from the center line of the wall to the center line of the wall.

what isMidline?

Refers to a line in the middle of a wall that is the same distance from both wall surfaces.

what isA brick wall, a half brick wall?

A standard brick is 240mm long, 115mm wide and 53mm high, a brick wall means a wall thickness of 240mm, and a half brick wall means a wall thickness of 120mm. (excluding cement mortar and stucco layer)

what isFloor height?

The height from the ground of this floor to the ground of the upper floor, the standard floor height is 2.8 meters.

what isFloor height?

The height from the ground of this floor to the top of this floor, net height + floor thickness = floor height.

what isLoad-bearing and non-load-bearing walls?

The load-bearing wall refers to the wall that supports the weight of the upper floor. It is a black wall in the engineering drawing. If it is destroyed, it will destroy the entire building structure; the non-load-bearing wall refers to the wall that does not support the weight of the upper floor, and only serves to put a room in it. The function of separating it from another room is a hollow wall on the engineering drawing. Whether or not this wall has no major impact on the building structure.

what isRoom type?

Refers to several rooms, several living rooms, several bathrooms and several balconies.

what isMoving line?

After entering the gate of the residence, the activity route between each functional room.

what isPrefabricated slabs and cast-in-place slabs?

Pre-fabricated slabs refer to the slabs made in advance according to the size, and they will be directly laid on it at that time, which can speed up the construction speed and lower the cost, but the overall seismic resistance and impermeability are poor, so the kitchen and bathroom must not be used.The cast-in-place slab refers to the floor slab that is directly poured with cement at the construction site, and has good overall seismic resistance and impermeability.

What is a mezzanine?

Within a floor, a partially added floor. 

What is a skirt room?

Refers to ancillary buildings connected to high-rise buildings with a height of not more than 24 meters.

 What is the standard tier?

Refers to the floors in the building that mainly use the same functional floor plan.

What is the device layer?

Refers to the floor dedicated to arranging mechanical and electrical equipment, etc.

 What is a structural transformation layer?

The upper and lower parts of a certain floor of a building have different functions due to the use of planes. The upper and lower parts of the floor adopt different structural types, and the structure is converted through this floor, so this floor is called a structural conversion layer.

 What is the building height?

Building height refers to the vertical height from the outdoor floor at the outer edge of the building to the highest part of the building.


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